Hybridization is a mathematical model that helps us to explain the bonding in organic molecules.
Hybridization is “mixing” of the orbitals resulting in averaging” of the orbitals giving the “hybrids”.
Formula :- 1/2[V+M-C+A]
# of AO = # of MO
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Mixing of one s & three p orbitals gives four sp³ orbitals & .
sp3 -hybridized orbitals are degenerate in Energy & form a tetrahedral shape around the atom.
Mixing one s & two orbitals gives three sp² orbitals & one unused P orbital still remains.
sp²-hybridized orbitals form a trigonal planar shape
Bond angles = 120°
mixing one s & three p orbitals gives four sp³ orbitals.
sp-hybridized orbitals form a linear Shape.
Bond angles = 180°
➤ When an electron pair is next to a π-bond, the pair is going to resonantly conjugate with the It bond. The resonance requires the e’s to be on the orbital shifting hybridization to a lower value.