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Plant Growth and Development Revision Notes One Shot And IMP of Environmental Issues Tricks

Plant growth and development revisison and short trick

Revision Notes of Plants Growth & Short tricks :-

 

πŸ”­πŸ”­ A single maize root apical meristem can be give rise to more than 17500 new cells per hour

πŸ’ŠπŸ’Š A wateremelon cell can increase its size upto 3,50,000 times

 πŸ“ͺπŸ“ͺ Arithmetic growth rate – Only one daughter cell continuous to divide while others differentiate and matures

πŸ“£πŸ“£ Geometric growth rate – all the daughter cells produced will divide..Sigmoid growth curve is obtained

πŸ“ŒπŸ“Œ Absolute growth rate – Increase in growth per unit time

πŸ“πŸ“ Relative growth rate – Increase in growth per unit time per unit initial parameter

🎑🎑 Relative growth rate also called as Efficiency index

🎒🎒 Differentiation – Conversion of meristamatic cell into structurally and functionally specialised Primary permanent tissue…eg: Formation of primary xylem

🎠🎠 Dedifferentiation – Conversion of primary permanent tissue to Secondary meristems….eg: Formation of cork cambium

πŸŽͺπŸŽͺ Redifferentiation – Formation of secondary permanent tissus from secondary meristems….eg: Formation of secondary xylem
 
πŸŽ₯πŸŽ₯ Development in plants = Growth + differentiation

🎭🎭 Eg of plasticity – Heterophylly in cotton, coriander, larkspur in which leaves of juvenile and mature stages are different……Heterophylly in buttercup in which leaves in terrestrial and aquatic habitat plants are different

 molecule They can be indole compounds eg: Indole 3 acetic acid (IAA)…..Adenine derivatives eg: N6 furfuryl amino purine, kinetin…..carotenoids eg: abscisic acid….terpenes eg: gibberellic acid….Gases eg: ethylene

🐝🐝 Plant growth promotors – Auxin, Cytokinin, Giberellic acid

🐞🐞 Plant growth inhibitors – Abscisic acid

 πŸ²πŸ² Ethylene has both properties

πŸ’πŸ’ Auxin – Effects :

πŸŽ“1. First isolated from human urine
πŸŽ“2. IAA & IBA are natural auxins and NAA & 2,4 – D are synthetic auxins
πŸŽ“3. Auxin initiate roots in stem cuttings
πŸŽ“4. It promotes flowering in pineapples
πŸŽ“5. Prevent abscission of young fruit and leaf…promotes abscission of old leaf & fruits
πŸŽ“6. Promote apical dominance 7. 2,4-D act as herbicide in dicots

πŸ’πŸ’ Gibberellins – Effects

🌈🌈1. Increase length of grape stalks
🌈🌈2. Causes fruits like apple to elongate and improve its shape
🌈🌈3. Delay senescence
🌈🌈4. GA3 promote malting in brewing industry
 πŸŒˆπŸŒˆ5. Increase length of stem in sugarcane and increase yield upto 20 tonnes per acre
 πŸŒˆπŸŒˆ6. Cause internodal elongation in beet, cabbage, and other rosette plants

πŸ’πŸ’ Cytokinins – Effects

⛳️⛳️1. Promote cell division
⛳️⛳️2. Overcome apical dominance
⛳️⛳️3. Promote nutrient mobilisation

πŸ’πŸ’ Ethylene – Effects

πŸš€πŸš€1. Promotes senescence and abscission
πŸš€πŸš€2. Promote ripening
πŸš€πŸš€3. Breaks seed and bud dormancy
πŸš€πŸš€4. Helps leaf & upper part of shoot to remain above water
πŸš€πŸš€5. Initiate flowering in pineapple

πŸ’πŸ’ Abscissic acid – Effects

πŸš”πŸš”1. Inhibits seed germination
πŸš“πŸš“2. Also called stress hormone
🐍🐍3. Antagonist to

IMP OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

πŸ€Environment (Protection) Act

>Passed by Government of India in 1986

>To protect and improve the quality of the environment

πŸ€Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act

>Passed in 1981

>Amended in 1986 to include noise under air pollution

πŸ€Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act

>Passed in 1974 to protect water bodies

πŸ€Montreal Protocol

>Signed in 1987 and came into effect from 1989

>To protect the ozone layer by controlling the use of ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs

πŸ€Joint Forest Management (JFM)

>Conceptualised in 1980 by Government of India

>It involves a joint partnership of local communities and forest department in the protection and management of forests

πŸ€Chipko Movement

>In 1974, Garhwal Himalayas

πŸ€National Forest Policy

>Came into force in 1988

>According to it, plains should have 33% forest cover and hills 67% forest cover

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