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Class 12th

Shapes in NCERT [All in one] & Points to remember Neet Biology – 7tricks

Here are the all shapes that are mentioned in the NCERT Biology book are written here at single place. Don’t miss to learn any shape because these are very important for students of medical who are preparing for neet or boards!

Shapes in Biology NCERT:

1) Exponential or Geometrical Growth Curve – JShape
2) Verhulst Pearl Logistic Growth Curve – Sigmoid shape
3) Duodenum – Shape
4) Chiasmata – X Shape
5) Testis – Oval Shape
6) Uterus – Inverted Pear Shape 
7) Fimbriae and Clitoris – Finger Like Shape
8) Vasa Recta and Hyoid Bone  U Shape
9) 7 Sternum of Female Cockroach – Boat Shape
10) Anther – 4 sided tetragonally 
11) Cotyledon – Shield Shape 
12) Archegonium – Flask Shape 
13) Gills of Mollusca  – Feather Like Shape 
14) Radula of Mollucus – File Like Shape 
15) Chiasmata  X Shape 
16) Testis – Oval Shape 
17) Uterus – Inverted Pear Shaped 
18) Fimbriae And Clitoris – Finger Like Shape
19) Anther – 4 Side Tetragonnally Shape
20) Cotyledon – Shield Shape 
21) Archegum –Flask Shape
21) Smooth Muscles – Fusiform 
22) Setae – S Shape 
23) Root hairs – Thread like shape 
24) Root Cap Thimble Like
25) Vegetative Cell (Nucleus)- Irregular Shape 
25) Generative Cell – Spindle Shape  
26) Ommatidia – Hexagonal
27) Centriole – Cylindrical 
28) Mitochondria – Sausage Shape (Cylindrical) 
28) RBC – Round and Biconcave 
29) Mesophyll Cell – Round and oval 
30) Tracheid – Elongated Shape 
31) Columnar Epithelium – Lond and Narrow
32) WBCs – Amoeoboid Irregular 
33) Nerve Cells – Long and Branched 
34) Henle’s Loop – Hairpin Shape 
35) Stomach – J Shaped 
36) Spleen and Kidney – Bean shaped 
37) Thymus – Lobed Biolbed 
38) Patella Knee Cap – Cup-shaped 
39) Bowman Capsule – Cup-shaped  
40) Heart – Clenched Fist
41) Diaphragm – Dome Shaped
42) Oxygen Dissociation curve – Sigmoid Shaped

The extra edge of NCERT

1. Triple helical model of collagen was given by G.N. Ramachandran

2. Ramachandran was influenced by Linus Pauling

3. Darwin was influenced by Malthus

4. P. Maheshwari was influenced by Dr W. Dudgeon

5. a- helix & b- sheet structures was published by Linus Pauling

Read More »Shapes in NCERT [All in one] & Points to remember Neet Biology – 7tricks

Hybridization Trick : Get it in Seconds : Chemistry Easy Short Tricks to find of any Compound – 7tricks

Trick for Hybridization Chemistry

Hybridization:

It is defined as the concept of mixing 2 atomic orbitals make a new atomic orbitals here mixing of two orbitals have same energy . In this process atomic orbitals with equal energy level are mixed than can be mixing of ‘s’ , ‘p’ , ‘d’ orbitals.

Formula :-

               1/2 [V+ M -C + A ]

Here,

V = No. of valence electrons

M = mono valent atom

C = Positive charge 

A = Negative charge

TRICK 1 :-

[  Number of σ (sigma) Bond +  No. of Lone pairs  =  Hybridization ]


IF Sum is 2 then Hybridization is → (SP)

Similarly for 3 → (SP²)  For 4 → (SP³)  For 5 → (SP³d)

For 6 → ( sp²d ²)  For 7 → (SP³d³)

Note : π (pi) bond not consider in Hybridization.

Let’s learn with some Examples

NH3 =

No. of σ Bonds in NH3 {3}  + No. of lone Pairs in N {1}

So Hybridization is 3 + 1 = 4 (SP3)

PCl5  = 

No. of σ Bonds in PCl5  {5} + No. of lone Pairs in P {0}

So Hybridization is 5 + 0 = 5 (SP3d)

CO2  = 

No. of σ Bonds in CO2 {2} + No. of lone Pairs in C {0}

So Hybridization is 2 + 0 = 2 (SP)


TRICK 2 :-


Hybridization

No. of valence e + No. of atom Univalent ± charge
                                  2

 

Note:- (1) Oxygen is not a univalent atom. So if it come then ignore it.

           (2 )Here that sign (±) Show that if  charge on compound is(+ve) then                     we take (-ve)in formula and if charge is (-ve) then take (+ve)      

Let’s learn with some Examples

 NH3 →  (5 +3 +0 ) ÷ 2  =  8 /2 = 4

                        
We got 4 so Hybridization is (SP³)

NOTE:-  Here ,’5′ is valance electrons in Nitrogen and it is  bonded with’3′            .                 univalent atoms (i.e. 3 Hydrogen )
                  And 0 Net Charge on it is zero ‘0’ .


 NH4+    (5+ 4 -1 ) ÷ 2 = 8/2 = 4

So,  Hybridization is (SP3)

NOTE:-  Here this compound has (+ve) charge so we took (-ve) charge      ,                  in Formula.

PCl5 → (5+5+0 )  ÷ 2 =  5  So Hybridization = SP3d

CO2  → (4 + 0 + 0) ÷ 2 = 2 So Hybridization is = SP

NOTE:-  Here we not consider oxygen in formula because Oxygen is not an univalent atom.

IF7    (7+7 + 0) ÷ 2 = 7 So Hybridization is = SP3d3

Read More »Hybridization Trick : Get it in Seconds : Chemistry Easy Short Tricks to find of any Compound – 7tricks